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Arbel 1995 = B. Arbel, Trading nations. Jews and Venetians in the early modern eastern Mediterranean, Leiden-New York, 1995.
Bellavitis 2001 = A. Bellavitis, Identité, mobilité sociale. Citoyennes et citoyens à Venise au XVIe siècle, Rome, 2001.
Bellavitis 1995 = A. Bellavitis, « Per cittadini metterete… ». La stratificazione della società veneziana cinquecentesca tra norma giuridica e riconoscimento sociale, in Quaderni Storici, 89, 2, 1995, p. 359-383.
Brulez 1960 = W. Brulez, De diaspora der Antwerpse kooplui op het einde van de 16e eeuw, in Bijdragen voor de geschiedenis der Nederlanden, 15, 1960, p. 279-306.
Brulez 1959 = W. Brulez, De firma Della Faille en de internationale handel van de Vlaamse firma’s in de 16e eeuw, Brussels, 1959.
Brulez and Devos 1986 = W. Brulez and G. Devos (ed.), Marchands flamands à Venise, 1606-1621, Brussels-Rome, 1986.
Cowan 2007 = A. Cowan, Marriage, manners and mobility in early modern Venice, Aldershot, 2007.
Cowan 1985 = A. Cowan, New families in the Venetian patriciate, 1646-1718, in Ateneo Veneto, 23, 1-2, 1985, p. 55-76.
Davis 1962 = J. C. Davis, The decline of the Venetian nobility as a ruling class, Baltimore, 1962.
De Commynes 1969 = Commynes, P. de, The memoirs, ed. S. Kinser, trad. I. Cazeaux, New York, 1969.
Dursteler 2003 = E. Dursteler, Review of J. Martin and D. Romano (ed.),Venice reconsidered. The history and civilization of an Italian city-state, 1297-1797, Baltimore-London, 2000, in Renaissance Quarterly 56.1, p. 152-155.
Van Gelder 2009a = Gelder, M. van, Trading places. The Netherlandish merchants in early modern Venice, Leiden-Boston, 2009.
Van Gelder 2009b = Gelder, M. van, How to influence Venetian economic policy : collective petitions of the Netherlandish merchant community in the early seventeenth century, in Mediterranean Historical Review, 24, 1, 2009, p. 29-47.
Van Gelder 2004 = Gelder, M. van, Supplying the Serenissima. The role of Flemish merchants in the Venetian grade during the first phase of the Straatvaart, in International Journal of Maritime History, 16, 2, 2004, p. 39-60.
Grubb 2000 = J. S. Grubb, Elite citizens, in J. Martin and D. Romano (ed.), Venice reconsidered. The history and civilization of an Italian city-state, 1297-1797, Baltimore-London, 2000, p. 339-364.
Horodowich 2008 = Horodowich, E., Language and statecraft in early modern Venice, Cambridge-New York, 2008.
Hunecke 1991 = V. Hunecke, Matrimonio e demografia del patriziato veneziano (secc. XVII-XVIII), in Studi Veneziani, 21, 1991, p. 269-319.
Jacobs 1989 = A. E. Jacobs, « Met oogen slechts daar by ». De gedichten van J. Six van Chandelier pver zijn reizen door Zuid-Europa II, Utrecht, 1989.
Lanaro 2006 = P. Lanaro, At the centre of the old world. Reinterpreting Venetian economic history, in : P. Lanaro (ed.), At the centre of the old world : trade and manufacturing in Venice and the Venetian mainland, 1400-1800, Toronto, 2006 (Centre for the Reformation and Renaissance srudies. Essays and studies, 9), p. 19-72.
Martin and Romano 2000 = J. Martin and D. Romano (ed.), Venice reconsidered. The history and civilization of an Italian city-state, 1297-1797, Baltimore-London, 2000.
Mueller 2010 = R. C. Mueller, Immigrazione e cittadinanza nella Venezia medievale, Venice, 2010.
Olard 2007 = Olard, L.-J., Venice-Babylon : Foreigners and citizens in the Renaissance period (14th-16 th centuries), in S. G. Ellis, L. Klusakova (ed.), Imagining frontiers, contesting identities, Pisa, 2007, p. 155-174.
Raines 2007 = D. Raines, Strategie d’ascesa sociale e giochi di potere a Venezia nel Seicento : le aggregazioni alla nobiltà, in Studi Veneziani, 51, 2007, p. 279-317.
Raines 2006 = D. Raines, L’invention du mythe aristocratique. L’image du soi du patriciat Venitien au temps de la Sérénissime, Venice, 2006.
Raines 1991 = D. Raines, Pouvoir ou privilèges nobiliaires : le dilemme du patriciat vénitien face aux agrégations du XVIIe siècle, in Annales. Économies, sociétés, civilisations 46, 1991, p. 827-847.
Stabel 2003 = P. Stabel, Italian merchants and the fairs in the Low Countries (12th-16th centuries), in P. Lanaro (ed.), La pratica dello scambio. Sistemi di fiere, mercanti e città in Europa (1400 - 1700), Venice, 2003, p. 131-159.
Netherlandish names were spelled in many different ways in early modern Italy. We can find, for example, Ghelthoff, Geltof, Gheldhof and Geldhof. I have chosen to give the version most common in Venetian documents : Ghelthof.
Jacobs 1989, p. 112-114 : « Op den toenaam van Adriaan Geldhof : / Wist heilge Mark uw naam, hy loofde ghy vol geld stakt, / En hield u, Geldhof, voor een paardeken, dat geld kakt ».
See, on the community of merchants from the Low Countries, Van Gelder 2009a.
Van Gelder 2009a, p. 202-203.
See on the patriciate, for example, the work by Stanley Chojnacki, Alexander Cowan, and Dorit Raines. For the less-studied citizen class, the work by Anna Bellavitis and Grubb 2000 form a good starting point.
Dursteler 2003, p. 153.
De Commynes 1969, p. 493. Examples of recent works citing De Commynes to underline Venetian multi-ethnicity are Lanaro 2006, p. 41 ; Olard 2007, p. 156 ; Horodowich 2008, p. 77.
Arbel 1995, p. 1-2.
Archivio di Stato di Venezia [hereafter : ASVe], Senato Mar, reg. 141, 15 July 1602.
ASVe, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia [CSM], Risposte, reg. 141, 16 January 1606 (more veneto, meaning that the Venetian new year started on 1 March), p. 192r-192v. For a discussion of the social and economic characteristics of this merchant community and their relation with the Venetian Republic, Van Gelder 2009a.
Hunecke 1991 and Davis 1962, p. 54ff.
The aggregation of new families started in 1646 with a petition from the wealthy cittadino family Labia, requesting admission to the nobility. After various deliberations in the Great Council, the Labia were accepted in July of that same year, opening up the way for other families. The new families were admitted in the periods 1646-1669 and 1685-1718, Raines 2006, p. 633-653 and Raines 1991, p. 838-839.
See, on honorary membership and the addition of new families to the patriciate before 1646, Cowan 1985, p. 56-57.
Raines 2006, p. 763-775, on the chronicles discussing the origins of new families.
ASVe, Misc. Codici I, Storie Venete, 43/i (formerly Misc. Codici 740/1), c.10r. See also Raines 2006, p. 747-748.
See Raines 2007 and Cowan 1985, p. 55.
Cowan 1985 and Cowan 2007.
See Van Gelder 2009b.
Still fundamental on this topic is Brulez 1960.
Brulez 1959, p. 125-136.
Van Gelder 2004.
Van Gelder 2004, p. 50-54.
Van Gelder 2009a, p. 99-106.
Van Gelder 2009a, p. 110-130.
ASVe, Collegio, Risposte di Dentro, b. busta 19, 3 April 1628 : « […] havendo anco preso per moglie dona cittadina venetiana, et con essa procreato molti figlioli ».
On Venetian citizenship, see Bellavitis 1995 ; Bellavitis 2001 ; Grubb 2000. Specifically on immigrants and Venetian citizenship, Mueller 2010.
Van Neste was allowed to pay his taxes retroactively, Van Gelder 2009a, p. 138.
On the practice of collective petitions, Van Gelder 2009b.
See, for the social origins of the new families, Cowan 1985, p. 58-59 : out of a total of 128 new families, seventy were either newcomers to the city of Venice or were of recent immigrant origin.
No English families ever resided long enough or had acquired sufficient standing to request admission. In addition to the two Netherlandish families, there were eight other foreign families from other Italian states or from Germany, who sought entry, Cowan 1985, p. 63.
For the vote on the van Axel aggregation, see Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana Venezia [hereafter : BNMV], Cod. Marc. VIII, b.183 (8161) Cod. Marc. It. VII, 183 ( =8161), ), « Famiglie create patritie Venete », c. 112. For the Suriano family, Cowan 1985, p. 67.
Van Gelder 2009a, p. 196-197.
Van Axel had set up a firm with the Netherlanders Antonio Retano, Paolo van Gansepoel, and Michiel van der Casteele in April 1621, ASVe, Notarile Atti [NA], b.10803, c. 387r-400r, 9 October 1640. By the time of van Axel’s death in 1637, his relation with Retano had soured, see Adolfo’s testament of 3 January 1636 (m.v.) and the codicil drawn up one day later, ASVe, Notarile Testamenti [NT], b. 757. See, for the partnership between the van Axel brothers and van Neste, ASVe, NA, b. 10783, c. 947r-947v, 12 November 1630 ; ASVe, Collegio, Risposte di Dentro, b. 25, 21 July 1634.
ASVe, NT, b.757, 3 January 1636 (m.v.). His second daughter entered a Venetian convent, showing that the family conformed with the Venetian elite’s marriage pattern.
The Avogaria di Comuni Comun, the council that had to approve non-noble women as suitable marriage partners for Venetian patricians, had given its consent a week earlier, ASVe, Avogaria di Comun [AC], Matrimoni e figli, Giovanni Battista Barbaro q. Giovanni and Partitum Declarationum (1589-1663), b. 108, c. 77v.
The wedding to Antonio Boldù took place at the church of San Gregorio on 28 September 1662. The dowry was registered as being 1,000 ducats in cash, 2,000 ducats in jewellery, furniture valued at 1,800 ducats as well as a large amount of land on the Terraferma, including the land Elisabetta had bought from the Barbaro family with the 2,000 ducats which her uncle and brothers had added to her dowry when she married Giovanni Battista Barbaro, ASVe, AC, b. 120/10, 21 September 1662. Because of official limits, the actual dowry may well have exceeded the registrated amount.
See, for example, ASVe, NA, b. 10798, c. 482r, 20 July 1638 ; b. 10798, c. 450v-451v, 8 July 1638 ; b. 10799, c. 628r-628v, 16 September 1638.
ASVe, NT, b. 936, 10 October 1665.
ASVe, NA, b. 10822, c.31v-32r, 12 March 1650.
Lubbert van Axel was a merchant and ship-owner in Amsterdam, Brulez and Devos 1986, nos. 3241 ; 3542 ; 3559 ; 3569 ; 3576.
ASVe, NT, b. 936.
ASVe, NT, b. 936. The death of Francesco was reported to the notary by the « Ill.mi ss.ri Gio Batta, e Tomaso Adolfo van Axele nobili veneti, nipoti, et heredi del sr. Testatore ».
See, for the aggregation of the van Axel family, the almost identical descriptions in two cronachette, BNMV, Mss. Italiani, VII, 942 (9014) Cod. Marc. It. VII, 942 ( =9014), c. 36r ; Mss. Italiani, VII, 949 (7908) Cod. Marc. It. VII, 949 ( =7908), c. 72-73.
BNMV, Cod. Marc. VIII, b.183 (8161) Cod. Marc. It. VII, 183 ( =8161), c. 112. The van Axel brothers paid 50,000 ducats in cash and invested the same amount in the Zecca.
Raines 2006, p. 747.
See Mss. Italiani, VII, 949 (7908) BNMV, Cod. Marc. It. VII, 949 ( =7908), c. 72-73.
BNMV, Cod. Marc. VIII, b. 183 (8161), Cod. Marc. It. VII, 183 ( =8161) « Famiglie create patritie Venete », c. 197.
See, for example, ASVe, NA, b. 10797, February 1637, c. 828r-828v ; October 1640-February 1641, c. 538v-539r, 18 December 1640.
ASVe, NT, b.167, 28 February 1689.
ASVe, NT, b. 167, 28 February 1689 : « Voglio, et ordino, che all’ hora sia procurato di mettere tutti li effetti insieme, et inclinando li sopranominati miei figlia, e genero amatissimi di continuare ad habitar in questa città di Venetia, ne andar più ad habitar in Anversa, se sarà aperta la porta per aggregare a’ questa Serenissima nobiltà, voglio si debbano fare con il solo cognome di Ghelthof e niun altro cognome unito ».
Marciana, Cod. Marc. VIII, b. 183 (8161) BNMV, Cod. Marc. It. VII, 183 ( =8161), c. 197.
See, for example, ASVe, Misc. Codici I, Storie Venete, 43/iv ; BNMV, Cod. Marc. It. VII, 942 ( =9014), c. 25r ; BNMV, Cod. Marc. It. VII, 949 ( =7908), 151.
ASVe, Misc. Codici I, Storie Venete, 43/i (formerly Misc. Codici 740/1), c. 10r. See also Raines 2006, p. 747-748.
Raines 2006, p. 68, based on ASVe, Misc Cod. III, Soranzo, reg. 15.
ASVe, NT, b. 151, 1 July 1737.
Pietro Marino married two patrician daughters : first Maria da Ponte and after her death Bianca Pizzamano. Haut de page